Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on XML Information Set for its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission.
SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built. This XML-based protocol consists of three parts: an envelope, which defines what is in the message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing procedure calls and responses. SOAP has three major characteristics: extensibility (security and WS-routing are among the extensions under development), neutrality (SOAP can be used over any transport protocol such as HTTP, SMTP, TCP, or JMS), and independence (SOAP allows for any programming model).
The SOAP architecture consists of several layers of specifications for: message format, Message Exchange Patterns (MEP), underlying transport protocol bindings, message processing models, and protocol extensibility. SOAP is the successor of XML-RPC, though it borrows its transport and interaction neutrality and the envelope/header/body from elsewhere (probably from WDDX).
The SOAP specification defines the messaging framework which consists of:
• The SOAP processing model defining the rules for processing a SOAP message
• The SOAP extensibility model defining the concepts of SOAP features and SOAP modules
• The SOAP underlying protocol binding framework describing the rules for defining a binding to an underlying protocol that can be used for exchanging SOAP messages between SOAP nodes
• The SOAP message construct defining the structure of a SOAP message
Both SMTP and HTTP are valid application layer protocols used as transport for SOAP, but HTTP has gained wider acceptance as it works well with today's internet infrastructure; specifically, HTTP works well with network firewalls. SOAP may also be used over HTTPS (which is the same protocol as HTTP at the application level, but uses an encrypted transport protocol underneath) with either simple or mutual authentication; this is the advocated WS-I method to provide web service security as stated in the WS-I Basic Profile 1.1.
Contents related to 'Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)'
Stomp: Simple Text Oriented Message Protocol (STOMP), is a simple text-based protocol, designed for working with message-oriented middleware.
Axis: Apache Axis is an implementation of the SOAP ("Simple Object Access Protocol") submission to W3C.