Message Passing Interface (MPI)
MPI is a library specification for message-passing, proposed as a standard by a broadly based committee of vendors, implementors, and users.
The Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI) is a message passing library standard based on the consensus of the MPI Forum, which has over 40 participating organizations, including vendors, researchers, software library developers, and users. The goal of the Message Passing Interface is to establish a portable, efficient, and flexible standard for message passing that will be widely used for writing message passing programs. As such, MPI is the first standardized, vendor independent, message passing library. The advantages of developing message passing software using MPI closely match the design goals of portability, efficiency, and flexibility. MPI is not an IEEE or ISO standard, but has in fact, become the "industry standard" for writing message passing programs on HPC platforms.
Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a standardized and portable message-passing system designed by a group of researchers from academia and industry to function on a wide variety of parallel computers. The standard defines the syntax and semantics of a core of library routines useful to a wide range of users writing portable message-passing programs in Fortran or the C programming language. There are several well-tested and efficient implementations of MPI, including some that are free or in the public domain. These fostered the development of a parallel software industry, and there encouraged development of portable and scalable large-scale parallel applications.
MPI is a language-independent communications protocol used to program parallel computers. Both point-to-point and collective communication are supported. MPI "is a message-passing application programmer interface, together with protocol and semantic specifications for how its features must behave in any implementation." MPI's goals are high performance, scalability, and portability. MPI remains the dominant model used in high-performance computing today.
Specification of the MPI
• MPI is a specification for the developers and users of message passing libraries. By itself, it is NOT a library - but rather the specification of what such a library should be.
• MPI primarily addresses the message-passing parallel programming model: data is moved from the address space of one process to that of another process through cooperative operations on each process.
• Simply stated, the goal of the Message Passing Interface is to provide a widely used standard for writing message passing programs. The interface attempts to be:
• The MPI standard has gone through a number of revisions, with the most recent version being MPI-3.
• Interface specifications have been defined for C and Fortran90 language bindings:
• C++ bindings from MPI-1 are removed in MPI-3
• MPI-3 also provides support for Fortran 2003 and 2008 features
• Actual MPI library implementations differ in which version and features of the MPI standard they support. Developers/users will need to be aware of this.
The MPI interface is meant to provide essential virtual topology, synchronization, and communication functionality between a set of processes (that have been mapped to nodes/servers/computer instances) in a language-independent way, with language-specific syntax (bindings), plus a few language-specific features. MPI programs always work with processes, but programmers commonly refer to the processes as processors. Typically, for maximum performance, each CPU (or core in a multi-core machine) will be assigned just a single process. This assignment happens at runtime through the agent that starts the MPI program, normally called mpirun or mpiexec.
Contents related to 'Message Passing Interface (MPI)'
Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP, OMP): OpenMP is an Application Program Interface (API), jointly defined by a group of major computer hardware and software vendors. OpenMP provides a portable, scalable model for developers of shared memory parallel applications.
Parallel Patterns Library (PPL): The Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) provides an imperative programming model that promotes scalability and ease-of-use for developing concurrent applications.
Threading Building Blocks (TBB): Threading Building Blocks (TBB) is a C++ template library developed by Intel for writing software programs that take advantage of multi-core processors.